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The Gyeongbuk Araucana (GA) domestic chicken is a hybrid breed developed in Gyeongbuk, Korea by crossing the Golden Duckwing Araucana and the White Leghorn, two breeds with very distinct characteristics. The White Leghorn, a small breed with a rump, is renowned for its prolific egg-laying as well as a good feed-to-egg conversion ratio. Meanwhile, the Golden Duckwing Araucana is a similarly sized small rumpless and tufted breed that produces blue-shelled eggs at a relatively slow rate. These two breeds were crossed to produce a Korean chicken variety which possesses qualities favorable to commercial poultry production from both parent breeds, including the blue shell tint of the eggs they lay and high egg production rate. Although both the Golden Duckwing Araucana and White Leghorn are small breeds, GA resulting from the cross are extremely large and can fly well. Additionally, GA chickens display a combination of phenotypic traits from both parents: a rump but no ear tufts (Fig. 1). Although GA is a relatively new breed, it has already been registered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) of the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization).
(A) A circular plot for distribution of TEVs on the genome of GA. Four types of TE are represented by different colors (LTR : green, LINE : red, SINE: orange, and DNA: blue). (B) A clustering tree based on LTR presence patterns for 28 chicken genomes. Three groups for LH, GA, and KNC are well-defined. The neighbor-joining tree using whole genome variants and other TE types (LINE, SINE, and DNA) are shown in Figure S4.
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Using TEV information from 9 chicken genome along with 19 public genome sequences, we performed clustering analysis based on the pattern of TE presence in 28 chicken genomes. Several other studies have constructed phylogenetic trees based on the TE presence pattern in primates24,25,26,27. These studies on the relationship between species showed that incongruent TE insertion sites can be caused by several factors, including incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization between species. Considering these factors within species and mating-free environment, we estimated that these factors would considerably impact TE presence patterns and consequently cause a confounding result. As predicted, we obtained results similar to those estimated for TE types like LINE, SINE, and DNA transposons (Figure S4). However, for LTR, the constructed tree was similar to that of SNP based-clustering, which roughly segregates whole individuals by breed (Figs 4B and S4A). This result indicates that LTR polymorphism might be used as a marker for revealing the relationship of relatively close organisms and is consistent with those from a previous study on the effects of retroviral insertions on phenotypic traits of breeds28 as well as blue egg shell formation10,27.
The genetic determination of blue egg shell coloration has been identified in Araucana chickens; it has been revealed that EAV-HP insertion promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus of the oviduct in Araucana chickens, which causes blue egg shell formation9,29. Our results identified retroviral insertions from three GA genomes in SLCO1B3 gene equally. Dong Xiang (DX) chickens are another blue-egg laying breed29; EAV-HP insertion was also identified in the DX genome sequence adjacent to the insertion of the SLCO1B3 gene in GA, which indicates that GA and DX share genetic characteristics with other breeds that lay blue eggs. All of these results are consistent with previous reports9,29.
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Retroviral insertion can influence the transcription of genes in many ways. Several studies on mice found that the effects of intronic retrovirus insertion on the transcription of the resident gene result in an alteration of the ratios of the splice variants by premature transcription, either by providing a cryptic promoter or by altering splicing. In the case of blue egg shell formation, upstream insertion of resident genes can influence expression of the gene31. Consequently, these transcriptional effects can modify phenotypic traits, which has been shown in chickens28 as well as mice32,33.
In this study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and analyzed genomic variants in order to reveal genetic characteristics of the GA breed. As a novel chicken breed, GA breed displays population structure clearly separated from other chicken breeds based on overall genomic variants and TE insertion information. Furthermore, we identified candidate genes which could provide insight into the association between genetic traits and phenotypic distinctions such as large body size, flight ability, egg production, and blue egg shell formation using various measures. This information and the sequencing data used in this study could be invaluable for understanding genomic features of a novel breed which has not been previously studied, as well as provide a basis for selective breeding of traits crucial to the poultry production industry.
How to cite this article: Jeong, H. et al. Whole genome sequencing of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a newly developed blue-egg laying chicken breed, reveals its origin and genetic characteristics. Sci. Rep. 6, 26484; doi: 10.1038/srep26484 (2016).
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Maxis match duck egg blue farmhouse kitchen set, with hints of pink that combines traditional and contemporary pieces for that modern but lived in cozy feel. Perfect for cooks and family get togethers.Please read the creators notes....If you do not have the packs mentioned in the creators notes, not all items will show in your game.
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Nergigante eggs can be found in Rare Dens in Terga Volcano Base and surrounding areas once you fight one for the story, but none of the other Elder Dragons are obtainable until after you complete the game. Then, they will still only appear in Super Rare dens (diamond dens with light blue and purple sheens)
A pigment called oocyanin is deposited on the egg of the Ameraucana breed, penetrating both the exterior and interior of the shell and making them blue. Other breeds such as Araucana, Dongxiang and Lushi lay blue or blue-green eggs.
An olive egger results from a cross between a hen and rooster from a brown-egg-laying and a blue-egg-laying breed. The hen produces a brown pigment that penetrates the blue shell of the egg, resulting in a greenish-hued egg. The darker the brown pigment, the more olive-colored the egg appears.
White and blue chickens produce white eggs, and brown chickens produce brown eggs, so it makes a difference in completing the Community Center Bundles, especially if Remixed Bundles is not chosen at start of game.
After seeing Shane's 8-heart event, each chicken you purchase from Marnie or hatch from a brown or white egg has a 25% chance of being blue. Aside from appearance, blue chickens are identical to regular white and brown chickens. One subtle benefit to this alternative color is that blue chickens are much easier to spot in a field of grass.
Our brown and blue Heritage Eggs come from two distinct (and distinctly beautiful!) breeds of birds; the Speckled Legbar Hens, who lay the various shades of blue eggs, and the Copper Maran Hens, who lay the brown. In short, the breed and health of the hen dictates what color eggshells she produces.
You can earn points and redeem them for free goodies every time you purchase our dog treats!* Just scan the QR insert card you find in select BLUE packages and download the Buddies app. Learn more about Buddies Rewards.
Nest sanitation may be a pre-adaptation in the evolution of egg rejection behavior (Rothstein 1975; Moskát et al. 2003). To test this, Yang et al. (2015c) examined model egg rejection rates of Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), a host of the Common Cuckoo, when blue model eggs were added alone or with half of a peanut shell. They found that the egg rejection rate of the latter was higher than that of the former. Moreover, when hosts detect the presence of parasites near their nests, they increase the number of return visits to the nest to improve the recognition and rejection of parasitic eggs (Moksnes and Røskaft 1989; Moksnes et al. 2000; Bartol et al. 2002; Davies et al. 2003). To verify whether these two methods can affect the egg rejection rate of the Chestnut Thrush, we either added half of a peanut shell and a blue model egg to nests at the same time, or added a blue model egg following exposure of the nest to a cuckoo dummy. However, we found that there was no significant difference in egg rejection ability between the two treatments.
Hi Louis, The two speckled eggs are Brown-headed Cowbird eggs. -bird-nest-info/brown-headed-cowbirds/ The other 3 are blue and probably bluebird eggs (not many other box-nesting birds have blue eggs).
I have the exact egg combo in a nest in one of our hanging ferns! 3 blue eggs and 2 dark speckled eggs. How can this be? Same bird mother? Or nest competition and two mothers claiming one nest? But then again, we have hung ferns in the same places for 23 years and I have to say this is the first time we have had this happen. Would live for an ornithologist to offer some reasonable explanation. These having ferns of ours typically birth 12 to 15 new birds each spring. I just love this event!!!
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